Iron and manganese occur naturally in water, especially groundwater Iron and manganese are undesirable in groundwater because of their effect on the appearance and taste of the water, and their ability to cause staining.​

Neither of the elements causes adverse health effects; they are, in fact, essential to the human diet. However, water containing excessive amounts of iron and manganese can stain clothes, discolor plumbing fixtures, and sometimes add a "rusty" taste and look to the water.

Arsenic especially in drinking water has huge health affects on the livings. Authorities restrict the maximum allowable amount of arsenic every year. Oxidation and then adsorption techniques are available for decent arsenic removal.

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